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托福浏览文章剖析

作者:Anton Ch…    文章来历:本站首创    点击数:    更新时刻:2013-9-10

雅虎排名 www.vicvinc.cn 托福浏览文章剖析

译文:

Geologists have long known that the Earth's mantle is heterogeneous, but its spatial arrangement remains unresolved—is the mantle essentially layered or irregularly heterogeneous? The best evidence for the layered-mantle thesis is the well-established fact that volcanic rocks found on oceanic islands, islands believed to result from mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle,are composed of material fundamentally different from that of the midocean ridge system, whose source, most geologists contend, is the upper mantle.Some geologists, however, on the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths, argue that the mantle is not layered, but that heterogeneity is created by fluids rich in "incompatible elements" (elements tending toward liquid rather than solid state) percolating upward and transforming portions of the upper mantle irregularly, according to the vagaries of the fluids' pathways. We believe, perhaps unimaginatively, that this debate can be resolved through further study, and that the underexplored midocean ridge system is the key.

1、难词

spatial: a.1.时间的,太空的;2.存在(或许发作)于世界时间的

plume: n.1.羽状物2.柱,地柱

xenolith:俘虏岩

percolate:v.1.浸透2.分散到,洋溢于

portions: n.一局部

2、难句

1.the best evidence for the layered-mantle thesis is the well-established fact that volcanic rocks found on oceanic islands,islands believed to result from mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle,are composed of material fundamentally different from that of the mid-ocean ridge system, whose source,most geologists contend,is the upper mantle.

关于地幔分层观点来讲,最棒的依据乃如许一个确认的究竟,即在那些陆地岛屿——这些岛屿据信是源于由基层地幔升下去的地幔柱状溶岩流(mantle plume)——上发觉的火山岩石,是由与陆地中部山脊体系的物资基本相同的物资组成的,而这一陆地中部山脊体系的成因,大大都地质学家论辩道,为上部地幔。

难句范例:杂乱润色、拔出语

注释:本句后面的骨干其实不算难,即the evidence is the fact that,难就难在fact以后阐明fact 的同位语从句。此从句中既有大段拔出语,又有从句,较尴尬读。同位语从句的主语是volcanic rocks,主语后边的found on oceanic islands是分词润色volcanic rocks的;islands前面又有一个阐明islands的同位语islands believed to result from mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle,此同位语理论起到一个分开主谓的同位语的效果。厥后是谓语动词are composed/of fundamentally different from that of the midocean ridge system, whose source, most geologists contend, is the upper mantle。

句中有一些专有辞汇。若是抛开文章不说,单看这一个语句,则句首的layered mantle thesis就难以了解。然而若是读者可以读懂语句的大体意义,看到layered mantle thesisr最有力依据那是其资料fundamentally different from… the upper mantle,这该当能够揣测出,已然相同于上层地幔,则这个实践未必是在说地幔有相同的层面。

2. some geologists,however,on the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths, argue that the mantle is not layered,but that heterogeneity is created by fluids rich in "incompatible elements" (elements tending toward liquid rather than solid state)percolating upward and transforming portions of the upper mantle irregularly,according to the vagaries of the fluids’ pathways. (4+)

然而,某些地质学家,以对地幔捕虏岩体(xenolith)所作的察看为根据,指出地幔并不是是分层分列的,相反,地幔的异质性是由那些富含“不相容身分”的流质组成的,这些身分趋势于流体而非固体的形态,自下而上浸透分散,并按照这些流质流向的恣意性,不规定地将上部地幔的某些局部予以扭转。

难句范例:杂乱润色、拔出语

注释:本句的主句中有一个长拔出语however,on the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths,分裂了主谓,但语句的首要难度仍是在that疏导的宾语从句中,从句中有由but 所衔接的两个语句,一同连续到句末。首选是rich in incompatible elements润色fluids;前面又有一个同位语和一个分词布局,都是润色incompatible elements的,末了另有一个状语来润色谁人分词布局,层层润色,比拟杂乱。

3、文章布局

Ts是文章的第一句,因而这一篇漫笔章是论断注释型。文章开端说出了地幔是heterogeneous,而后又指出了他的spatial arrangement remains unresolved,而后提出了两种实践,一是layyered-mantle thesis,别的一个是irregularly heterogeneous.而后辨别对这两种实践停止describe.末了作者指出,We believe,perhaps unimaginatively, that this debate can be resolved through further study, and that the underexplored midocean ridge system is the key.

托福备考进程中,若要获得胜人一筹的高分,咱们就需求在招考本领的根底上,从难词、难句、文章布局等方面做剖析吃透,才干真实充分英语才能,进步各方面的水准。本文中,咱们以一篇浏览文章为例,提取它的难词,难句,杂乱的文章布局,阐明咱们该当从浏览文章中取得些甚么资本。提炼一个文章的哪些“言语因素”除了有助于咱们在浏览中熟能生巧,也有助于托福写作才能的进步。

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