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江西艺缘精品推荐:顺治通宝

雅虎排名 www.vicvinc.cn 货币是商品交换的产物。在原始社会末期最早出现的货币是实物货币。一般来说游牧民族以牲畜、兽皮类来实现货币职能,而农业民族以五谷、布帛、农具、陶器、海贝,珠玉等充当最早实物货币。据考古发掘新石器时代晚期遗址如半坡出土大量陶罐作为殉葬物;大汶口文化殉葬大量猪头和下颚骨,表明猪和陶器在原始社会后期曾起过货币财富的职能。但众所周知,流通较广的古代实物货币为""。因为充当实物货币,牛、羊、猪等牲畜不能分割,五谷会腐烂,珠玉太少,刀铲笨重,故最后集中到海贝这一实物货币。海贝可作颈饰,有使用价值,便于携带与计数,因此在长期商品交换中被选为主要货币。在考古发掘中,夏代,商代遗址出土过大量天然贝,贝作为实物货币一直沿用到春秋时期。因此中国汉字中和财富,价值有关的字大多与""字有关。如:贵、资、贪、贫、财、购等。e7289667f2faf7b07a7ade9250a5195Money is the product of commodity exchange. The earliest currency that appeared at the end of the primitive society was physical currency. In general, nomadic peoples use livestock and animal skins to achieve monetary functions, while agricultural peoples use grains, cloth, agricultural implements, pottery, seashells, and beaded jade as the earliest physical currency. According to archaeological excavations of late Neolithic sites such as Banpo unearthed a large number of pottery pots as burial objects; Dawenkou culture buried a large number of pigs and cheekbones, indicating that pigs and pottery had played the role of monetary wealth in the later period of primitive society. However, it is well known that the ancient physical currency with wide circulation is "Bay". Because it serves as a physical currency, cattle, sheep, pigs, and other livestock can not be divided, grains will rot, pearls and jade are too few, and knives and shovels are bulky. Therefore, they are finally concentrated in the real currency of seashells. Seashells can be used as neck ornaments, have use value, easy to carry and count, and are therefore selected as the main currency in long-term commodity exchanges. In archaeological excavations, a large number of natural shellfish were unearthed in the Xia and Shang dynasties, and shellfish was used as a physical currency until the Spring and Autumn Period. Therefore, most of the words related to the value of Chinese characters and wealth are related to the word "Bay". Such as: expensive, capital, greed, poverty, wealth, purchase and so on.

    顺治通宝是清世祖顺治年间(1644-1661)所铸钱。顺治元年,在北京于工部、户部开设宝源局、宝泉局铸币,后随着天下统一,在各地开设钱局,钱币上用楷书写着"顺治通宝"。顺治通宝的成分红铜七成,白铜三成。一千铜钱称为一串。顺治通宝重初定位每文一钱,后改为一钱二分、一钱四分、一钱二分五。顺治通宝的币型未能统一,按照背文可分为五种,也就是"顺治五式"。a4254f5c1258464871b08f7f860f673Shunzhi Tongbao was the money cast during the Shunzhi period of the Qing Dynasty(1644-1661). In the first year of Shunzhi, the Baoyuan Bureau and Baoquan Bureau were set up in Beijings Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Housing. After the unification of the world, the money bureaus were set up in various places. The coins were written on the coins as "Shunzhi Tongbao." Shunzhi Tongbao has 70 % of copper dividends and 30 % of white copper. A thousand coins is called a string. Shunzhi Tongbao initially positioned each article as one money, and later changed to one money and two cents, one money and four cents, and one money and two cents. Shunzhi Tongbaos currency has not been unified. According to the text, it can be divided into five types, namely "Shunzhi Five Types."

 

    1644年春夏之交,摄政王多尔衮率清军马队入山海关,驱逐李自成,他的侄儿清世祖,在天下中枢北京定都,开始了对清朝中国长达268年的统治,货币的历史也为之一变。 入关之前,清太祖努尔哈赤在盛京(今沈阳)建立后金政权,就曾铸行"天命通宝",在铸钱方面已初具经验了。天命钱相比之下要比明代崇祯钱厚重得多,反映出满人当时的经济实力。天聪是皇太极的年号,以此为名铸造的年号钱叫作"天聪汗之钱",是满人在经营辽沈时通用的主要货币。 顺治帝入主中国时,长期战乱之后的残破社会经济,正进入恢复时期。百废待兴,但财用紧张,当时的流通货币仍是明钱。另外,农业和手工业水平的逐渐提高,商品流通的日益活跃,加之资本主义萌芽的增长和对外贸易的进一步扩大,又呼唤着新货币的产生。在此期间,对于造何种钱行世,代理幼子问政的多尔衮经过一番慎重的考虑,决定仿明代铜钱形制铸"顺治通宝",与前朝"崇祯通宝"一并行用。随后先在京师试铸钱,揭开铸钱序幕。其后十几年里,又在全国设立铸钱局27家,颁式开铸新朝钱币-楷书对读的汉文"顺治通宝"。顺治一朝,此钱只通行平钱一种,定制为红铜七成,白铜三成搭配鼓铸。"顺治通宝"是明清以来最重的制钱,无论成色、样式还是分量都成为定制,对后继年号钱影响很大。e7289667f2faf7b07a7ade9250a5195At the turn of the spring and summer of 1644, Regent Dorgon led the Qing army team into Shanhaiguan and expelled Li Zicheng. His nephew, Qing Shizu, established the capital in Beijing, and began the 268-year rule of the Qing Dynasty China. The history of money is also a change. Before entering the customs, Qing Zunuerhachi established Jinzhengquan after the establishment of Shengjing(now Shenyang). He had cast the "Tian Tian Tong Bao" and had begun to have experience in casting money. The destiny money is much thicker than the Chongzhen money of the Ming Dynasty, reflecting the economic strength of the people at that time. Tian Cong is the year number of Huang Taiji. The name of the name cast in this name is called "The Money of Tian Cong Khan" and is the main currency used by the Manchu people when operating Liaoshen. When Emperor Shunzhi entered China, the broken social economy after the long-term war was entering a period of recovery. Waste is waiting for prosperity, but financial use is tight. At that time, the currency in circulation was still clear money. In addition, the gradual improvement of the level of agriculture and handicrafts, the increasing activity of commodity circulation, coupled with the growth of capitalism and the further expansion of foreign trade, are calling for the emergence of a new currency. During this period, after careful consideration of what kind of money was made, Dorgon, who was acting as the son of the young son, asked the government, decided to imitate the Ming Dynasty copper coin shape and cast "Shunzhi Tongbao", which was used in parallel with the former "Chongzhen Tongbao".. Then he first tried to cast money in the capital and opened the prelude to casting money. In the following ten years, 27 money casting bureaus were set up throughout the country, and the Chinese version of "Shunzhi Tongbao" was published. In the Shunzhi dynasty, this money was only used for one type of flat money, customized for 70 % of red copper, and 30 % of white copper. "Shunzhi Tongbao" is the heaviest money making since the Ming and Qing dynasties. Regardless of color, style, or weight, it has become custom, and it has a great influence on the money of the following year.

此币,重2.5g。是圆形方孔铜质钱币,正面镌文字“顺治通宝”四字。造型圆润端庄,字体疏放大气。背面铸满文。此枚钱币制作工整,文字字口深峻,笔画刚劲有力,铜色金黄,包浆自然。顺治钱的种类十分繁杂,在清代钱币中独具特色,它上承明代制钱风格,下启清代币制之先河,成为明亡清初这段国运变幻、民族剧烈碰撞的重要历史时期的社会经济货币文化的真实缩影。由于其不同一般的历史意义,以及其丰富的版别式样,后世好泉者对顺治钱亲睐有加。a4254f5c1258464871b08f7f860f673This coin weighs 2.5 G. It is a round square hole copper coin, and the front word "Shunzhi Tongbao" is the word. The shape is round and dignified, and the font is sparse and atmospheric. The back is cast full text. This coin is made neat, the text is deep, the strokes are strong, the copper is golden, and the pulp is natural. The types of Shunzhi money are very complicated and unique in the coins of the Qing Dynasty. It inherited the style of making money in the Ming Dynasty and set a precedent for the currency system in the Qing Dynasty. It became an important historical period of the Ming and Qing dynasties. The true epitome of the socio-economic and monetary culture. Due to its different general historical significance and its rich typology, the good spring of later generations has added to Shunzhis money.

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